Quelles menaces réelles représente le terrorisme aujourd’hui ? Comment sanctionner les auteurs, commanditaires et financiers tout en respectant un juste équilibre entre la réparation due aux victimes et la sauvegarde des droits et des libertés de chacun ? Quelle place est réservée aux victimes du terrorisme dans les législations pénales internes de chacun des États membres de l’Union européenne ? Qu’en est-il de la coopération européenne et internationale ? Cet ouvrage collectif, réalisé par S.O.S. Attentats, s’inscrit dans la continuité du Livre noir que cette ONG a publié en 2002 et du colloque international qu’elle a organisé à Paris le 5 février 2002. Il réunit quarante contributions émanant d’experts en relations internationales et en droit international pénal, qui apportent des réponses aux questions que tout citoyen est en droit de se poser. Malgré les progrès réalisés, force est de constater que, dans la lutte contre le terrorisme, les États demeurent hésitants à assumer leur responsabilité. Alors que le procès des auteurs et commanditaires des actes terroristes est reconnu comme une étape indispensable de la reconstruction des victimes, ces dernières en sont encore rop souvent écartées. Crime international incontestable, le terrorisme ne peut demeurer exclu de la compétence de la Cour pénale internationale. Ses auteurs, quelles que soient leurs fonctions, ne sauraient demeurer impunis au prétexte d’une prétendue coutume internationale qui les met, aujourd’hui, à l’abri de toute poursuite et de toute condamnation. Par cet ouvrage, S.O.S. Attentats a pour ambition de favoriser, dans le plein respect des droits de la défense, une véritable reconnaissance des droits des victimes du terrorisme. S.O.S. Attentats a reçu pour cet ouvrage le soutien financier du Programme GROTIUS II de la Commission européenne.
Antimicrobial polymers are materials that prevent microorganism growth and are needed for many everyday applications from food packaging and water treatment to medicine and healthcare. This new book covers different areas of antimicrobial materials based on polymers including chitosan, polymers with ammonium and phosphonium groups, polymer nanofibers, carbon-based polymer Nanocomposites, polymeric and non-polymeric metal complexes, and biomimetic materials. By combining the information of different materials as well as antimicrobial action modes and applications within one source, the book provides a general summary of the field. Polymeric Materials with Antimicrobial Activity starts with a general introduction to antimicrobial polymers and presents the most common types of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeast and algae) along with the main areas of application of antimicrobial polymeric materials. Specific chapters then detail different polymer systems covering the fundamental issues of synthesis, characterization, physico-chemical properties and applications. With contributions from leading scientists the book is suitable for researchers in polymers, chemistry, biology and materials science interested in an overview of antimicrobial polymeric materials as well as the recent advances in their synthesis, properties and applications.
Preventing Corporate Corruption
Author: Stefano Manacorda, Francesco Centonze, Gabrio Forti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
This book presents the results of a two-year international research project conducted for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC) to investigate and provide solutions for reducing bribery and corruption in corporations and institutions. It starts with an empirical case study on the effectiveness of a set of self-regulation rules adopted by multinational companies in the energy sector. Second, it explores the context and factors leading to corruption internationally (and the relationships between domestic criminal law and self-regulation). Third, it examines guidelines for the adoption of compliance programs developed by international institutions, to serve as models for the future. The principle result of the book is a three-pronged Anti-Bribery Corruption Model (so called ABC Model), endorsed by the United Nations, intended as a corruption prevention tool intended to be adopted by private corporations. This work provides a common, research-based standard for anti-bribery compliance programs, with international applications. This work will be of interest to researchers studying Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly in the areas of organized crime and corruption, as well as related areas like Business Ethics and Comparative International Law.
Fragmentation: Toward Accurate Calculations on Complex Molecular Systems introduces the reader to the broad array of fragmentation and embedding methods that are currently available or under development to facilitate accurate calculations on large, complex systems such as proteins, polymers, liquids and nanoparticles. These methods work by subdividing a system into subunits, called fragments or subsystems or domains. Calculations are performed on each fragment and then the results are combined to predict properties for the whole system. Topics covered include: Fragmentation methods Embedding methods Explicitly correlated local electron correlation methods Fragment molecular orbital method Methods for treating large molecules This book is aimed at academic researchers who are interested in computational chemistry, computational biology, computational materials science and related fields, as well as graduate students in these fields.
Into the Killing Seas
Author: Michael P. Spradlin
Publisher: Scholastic Inc.
"When the ship goes down, the sharks come out.... Stranded in the war torn Pacific, Patrick and his younger brother Teddy are finally homeward-bound. They've stowed away on one of the US Navy's finest ships, and now they just need to stay hidden. But Japanese torpedoes rip their dream apart. And the sinking ship isn't the worst of it. Patrick and Teddy can handle hunger and dehydration as they float in the water and wait to be rescued. If they're smart, they can even deal with the madness that seems to plague their fellow survivors. No, the real danger circles beneath the surface. And it has teeth.... Based on the true events of the 1945 sinking of the USS Indianapolis, author Michael P. Spradlin tells a harrowing story of World War II."
The rise of collective violence and genocide is the twentieth century's most terrible legacy. Martha Minow, a Harvard law professor and one of our most brilliant and humane legal minds, offers a landmark book on our attempts to heal after such large-scale tragedy. Writing with informed, searching prose of the extraordinary drama of the truth commissions in Argentina, East Germany, and most notably South Africa; war-crime prosecutions in Nuremberg and Bosnia; and reparations in America, Minow looks at the strategies and results of these riveting national experiments in justice and healing. From the Trade Paperback edition.
This volume addresses an important historiographical gap by assessing the respective contributions of tradition and foreign influences to the 19th century codification of criminal law. More specifically, it focuses on the extent of French influence – among others – in European and American civil law jurisdictions. In this regard, the book seeks to dispel a number of myths concerning the French model’s actual influence on European and Latin American criminal codes. The impact of the Napoleonic criminal code on other jurisdictions was real, but the scope and extent of its influence were significantly less than has sometimes been claimed. The overemphasis on French influence on other civil law jurisdictions is partly due to a fundamental assumption that modern criminal codes constituted a break with the past. The question as to whether they truly broke with the past or were merely a degree of reform touches on a difficult issue, namely, the dichotomy between tradition and foreign influences in the codification of criminal law. Scholarship has unfairly ignored this important subject, an oversight that this book remedies.
The fully revised and updated Third Edition of Remedies in International Human Rights Law provides a comprehensive analysis of the law governing international and domestic remedies for human rights violations. It reviews and examines the texts and the jurisprudence on this key area of human rights law. It is an essential practical and theoretical resource for policymakers, scholars, and students negotiating and litigating issues of redress for victims. The Third Edition incorporates the major developments in remedial human rights jurisprudence. Internationally, the United Nations and the International Criminal Court have issued reparations guidelines; the International Court of Justice has for the first time awarded compensation for human rights violations; the International Law Commission has considered the humanitarian responsibility of international organizations; and new international petition procedures and policies on redress have entered into force. Regionally, in Asia and Africa, human rights bodies have adopted new human rights accords and legal judgments; in Europe, the human rights case load unceasingly increases. Nationally, the jurisprudence of historical reparations has come to the fore, as has the juridical consideration of economic and social rights. All of these developments are analyzed in context and create a comprehensive and accessible portrait of the state of remedial human rights law today.
Author: Larry May, Stacey Hoffman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
This anthology presents the best recent philosophical analyses of moral, political, and legal responsibility of groups and their members. Motivated by reflection on such events as the Holocaust, the exploding Ford Pintos, the My Lai massacre, and apartheid in South Africa, the essays consider two important questions: What collective efforts could have prevented these large-scale social harms? And is some group to blame and, if so, how is blame to be apportioned?
Author: Centre de documentation sciences humaines (France)
Author: Higgins, Polly
Publisher: Shepard-Walwyn (IPG)
In Eradicating Ecocide, international environment lawyer and Ecocide law expert Polly Higgins sets out to demonstrate how our planet is fast being destroyed by the activities of corporations and governments, facilitated by ‘compromise’ laws that offer insufficient deterrence. She offers a solution that is radical yet pragmatic, and, as she explains, necessary. Starting with the Mexican Gulf oil spill, a compelling reminder of the consequences of un-checked ecocide, Higgins advocates the introduction of an international Ecocide law. As the missing 5th Crime Against Peace, it would hold to account heads of corporate bodies who are found guilty of perpetrating ecocide. The opportunity to implement this law represents a crossroads in the fate of humanity: we can accept this one change and in doing so save our ecosystem for future generations, or we can continue to destroy it, risking future brutal war over disappearing natural resources. This is the first book to examine the power of law to change everything. Higgins provides context by presenting examples of laws in other countries and in earlier times in history which have succeeded in curtailing the power of governments, corporations and banks, and have triggered change. Eradicating Ecocide is a crash course on what laws work, what doesn’t and what else is required to prevent the ever escalating destruction. Eradicating Ecocide provides a comprehensive overview of what is required in law in order to prevent ecocide. It is a book unlike any other; based on the principle of ‘first do no harm’, it applies equally to global as well as smaller communities and anyone who is involved in decision-making.
How Sanctions Work
Author: N. Crawford, A. Klotz
How Sanctions Work surveys theories of international sanctions and offers detailed analyses of the effect of sanctions on apartheid South Africa. Chapters by respected international experts cover cultural isolation, oil and military embargoes, trade boycotts, financial sanctions and divestment, consequences for black South Africans, and regional effects. The book shows how sanctions both directly and indirectly hurt the apartheid regime while in some cases offering succour to the anti-apartheid movement.
The Psychology of Legitimacy
Author: John T. Jost, Brenda Major
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book, first published in 2001, provides a general approach to the psychological basis of social inequality.
Professor Patrice MANGIN President of the XVlth Congress of the International Academy of Legal Medicine and Social Medicine The International Academy of Legal Medicine and Social Medicine was founded in 1938 in Bonn. The motive for founding the Academy was to promote associating and confronting on an international background the scientific research work produced in the various domains dealing with the Legal and Social Medicine. As first presi dent of the International Academy of Legal Medicine and Social Medicine, Professor Knud Sand from Copenhagen, assisted by colleagues of the Praesidium appointed as national representatives, succeeded in gathering together nearly the whole aca demic people involved in Legal and Social Medicine. Thus one year later, in 1939, The Academy became a worldwide institution of 450 members from thirty nations. After the war, what had been before of considerable interest for the progress of the knowledge and techniques in Legal Medicine remained again a pressing necessity leading to the second meeting of the Academy in 1947 in Brussels under the presi dency of Professor De Laet. Since then the meetings of the Academy followed one another every three years. At this point, I would like to thank all the past presidents of the Academy and in particular Professor Roche and Professor Andre for their contribution without which the Academy would not be what it is presently.