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Terre noire. L'Holocauste, et pourquoi il peut se répéter

Terre noire. L'Holocauste, et pourquoi il peut se répéter

Author: Timothy Snyder
Publisher: Editions Gallimard
ISBN: 2072619920
Pages: 608
Year: 2016-09-22T00:00:00+02:00
Pour Hitler, l’extermination des "races inférieures", à commencer par la "vermine juive" pour continuer par les Slaves, était étroitement liée à l’indispensable conquête du Lebensraum, "espace vital", mais aussi "habitat" et "niche écologique" pour la race nordique-germanique. La seule écologie saine consistait à éliminer l’ennemi politique, la seule politique saine à en purifier la terre. D'où ce livre original et puissant, qui reprend dans toute son ampleur la genèse et le déroulement de l’extermination des Juifs. Celle-ci ne pouvait se réaliser que si l’Allemagne détruisait d’autres États. Au début, Staline l’a aidé dans cette entreprise, puis l’invasion de l'Union soviétique a créé les conditions autorisant le meurtre de millions de personnes. Les territoires où l’État était détruit devenaient des zones de ténèbres où presque tous les Juifs mouraient. Si certains ont pu néanmoins survivre, c’est grâce à des institutions ressemblant à des États et à quelques rares Justes qui ont aidé des Juifs sans le secours de quiconque au péril de leur vie. En conclusion, l’auteur débouche sur les perspectives d’un renouvellement possible, et même probable, des massacres de masse. La planète change. Avec la fin de la révolution verte, le réchauffement climatique, la pénurie d’eau et d’hydrocarbures, l’avenir laisse prévoir des situations qui rendraient à nouveau plausibles les visions hitlériennes de la vie, de l’espace et du temps. Terre noire, traduction littérale de Black Earth, désigne précisément les riches terres à blé d’Ukraine convoitées par Hitler. Le titre résonne aussi d'un sens plus général, comme une métaphore de ce qui nous attend. Comprendre alors les mécanismes de l’Holocauste est peut-être le moyen et la chance, la dernière, de préserver l’humanité.
Kruger, un bourreau ordinaire

Kruger, un bourreau ordinaire

Author: Nicolas Patin
Publisher: Fayard
ISBN: 2213699860
Pages: 308
Year: 2017-09-13
Qui était Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger ? Un officier allemand idéaliste qui entra à vingt ans dans la Première Guerre mondiale. Un soldat qui vécut le déshonneur de la défaite. Un homme nommé à la tête de la Pologne occupée en 1939, au service d’Heinrich Himmler et d’Adolf Hitler. Un bourreau dont les historiens n’avaient pas expliqué jusqu’ici le rôle majeur joué dans l’extermination de deux millions de juifs polonais. Le chef suprême de la police et de la SS, qui fit construire les camps de Be ec, de Sobibór, de Treblinka ; coordonna la destruction du ghetto de Varsovie ; organisa la destruction de la résistance polonaise... Comment ce jeune homme enthousiaste a-t-il pu devenir, en deux décennies, l’un des pires bourreaux de la Seconde Guerre mondiale ? Dans cette biographie captivante, Nicolas Patin convoque le Journal intime inédit de Krüger, des archives allemandes, polonaises, américaines, pour restituer le parcours nuancé d’un bourreau ordinaire, sculpté par trente ans de violence, d’une guerre à l’autre.
KL

KL

Author: Nikolaus Wachsmann
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 0374118256
Pages: 880
Year: 2015-04-14
The award-winning author of Hitler's Prisons presents an unprecedented, integrated account of the Nazi concentration camps from their inception in 1933 through their demise in the spring of 1945.
Le modèle américain d'Hitler

Le modèle américain d'Hitler

Author: James Q. Whitman
Publisher: Armand Colin
ISBN: 2200621787
Pages: 256
Year: 2018-02-14
Allemagne, années 1930 : les nazis préparent leur accession au pouvoir. Dans la perspective des futures lois raciales de Nuremberg, ils s’intéressent tout particulièrement aux politiques ségrégationnistes mises en place aux États-Unis. Ironie de l’histoire, les nazis estimeront que la politique américaine va trop loin, notamment avec la loi « une seule goutte suffit » (ou « One-Drop Rule ») qui leur permet de classer les Africains-américains en citoyens de seconde classe. Les lois raciales nazies ont-elles été inspirées par ce « modèle américain » ? L’auteur, James Whitman, répond par l’affirmative, ayant mené une enquête détaillée sur l’impact américain lors de la mise en place des principales lois de Nuremberg, pièces maîtresses de la ségrégation antijuive du régime nazi. S’opposant à l’idée généralement défendue par les historiens que la politique de répression américaine n’aurait aucun lien significatif avec les lois raciales allemandes, l’auteur démontre dans cet essai que les nazis ont, au contraire, montré un grand intérêt, réel et soutenu, que ce modèle leur a servi de base dans l’élaboration de leur propre système de ségrégation. Cet essai nous fait comprendre, au-delà de l’histoire du Troisième Reich, l’influence de l’Amérique sur les pratiques racistes dans le monde. « Le livre de James Whitman est une belle leçon d’histoire », Johann Chapoutot, Professeur d’histoire contemporaine à la Sorbonne « Dans sa nouvelle histoire saisissante, Whitman retrace l’influence substantielle des lois raciales américaines sur le Troisième Reich », Jeff Guo, Washington Post
The Holocaust Industry

The Holocaust Industry

Author: Norman G. Finkelstein
Publisher: Verso
ISBN: 185984488X
Pages: 286
Year: 2003
Controversial indictment of those who exploit the tragedy of the Holocaust for their own gain.
The Kindly Ones

The Kindly Ones

Author: Jonathan Littell
Publisher: Emblem Editions
ISBN: 1551993643
Pages: 992
Year: 2010-03-02
“Oh my human brothers, let me tell you how it happened.” Dr. Max Aue, the man at the heart of Jonathan Littell’s stunning and controversial novel The Kindly Ones, personifies the evils of the Second World War and the Holocaust. Highly educated and cultured, he was an ambitious SS officer, a Nazi and mass murderer who was in the upper echelons of the Third Reich. He tells us of his experience during the war. He was present at Auschwitz and Babi Yar, witnessed the battle of Stalingrad, and survived the fall of Berlin — receiving a medal from Hitler personally in the last days of Nazi Germany. Long after the war, he is living a comfortable bourgeois life in France, married with two children, managing a lace factory. And now, having evaded justice, he speaks out, giving a precise and accurate record of his life. The tone of his account is detached, lapidary, and for the most part unrepentant, whether he is describing his participation in mass murder on the Eastern Front, his bureaucratic investigations of labour productivity in the death camps, his casual murder of civilians as he tries to break through Russian lines towards the end of the war, or his fervid and convoluted relationship with his twin sister. Over its course, by entwining Aue’s life with those of historical figures such as Eichmann and Speer, Himmler and indeed Hitler, The Kindly Ones comes to depict the entire architecture of Nazism — from its grandest intellectual pretensions to its most minute, most chilling managerial details and executions. The Kindly Ones presents — with unprecedented realism, meticulous research that is both fascinating and compelling, and brilliant literary accomplishment — the greatest horrors imaginable. “War and murder are a question, a question without an answer, for when you cry out in the night, no one answers,” Aue says. In the same way, this powerfully affecting, powerfully challenging book confronts the reader with the most profound questions about history, morality, and art without offering any easy resolution. Written originally in French, and published now in English for the first time, The Kindly Ones has already sold to date well over a million copies in Europe. In France it won two prestigious prizes, including the Goncourt, and has been compared to War and Peace and other great classics of literature. From the Hardcover edition.
Bloodlands

Bloodlands

Author: Timothy Snyder
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465032974
Pages: 544
Year: 2012-10-02
From the bestselling author of On Tyranny, the definitive history of Hitler's and Stalin's wars against the civilians of Europe in World War Two Americans call the Second World War "The Good War."But before it even began, America's wartime ally Josef Stalin had killed millions of his own citizens--and kept killing them during and after the war. Before Hitler was finally defeated, he had murdered six million Jews and nearly as many other Europeans. At war's end, both the German and the Soviet killing sites fell behind the iron curtain, leaving the history of mass killing in darkness. Bloodlands is a new kind of European history, presenting the mass murders committed by the Nazi and Stalinist regimes as two aspects of a single history, in the time and place where they occurred: between Germany and Russia, when Hitler and Stalin both held power. Assiduously researched, deeply humane, and utterly definitive, Bloodlands will be required reading for anyone seeking to understand the central tragedy of modern history. Bloodlands won twelve awards including the Emerson Prize in the Humanities, a Literature Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the Leipzig Award for European Understanding, and the Hannah Arendt Prize in Political Thought. It has been translated into more than thirty languages, was named to twelve book-of-the-year lists, and was a bestseller in six countries.
The Power of Economists within the State

The Power of Economists within the State

Author: Johan Christensen
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 1503601854
Pages: 232
Year: 2017-04-11
The spread of market-oriented reforms has been one of the major political and economic trends of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Governments have, to varying degrees, adopted policies that have led to deregulation: the liberalization of trade; the privatization of state entities; and low-rate, broad-base taxes. Yet some countries embraced these policies more than others. Johan Christensen examines one major contributor to this disparity: the entrenchment of U.S.-trained, neoclassical economists in political institutions the world over. While previous studies have highlighted the role of political parties and production regimes, Christensen uses comparative case studies of New Zealand, Ireland, Norway, and Denmark to show how the influence of economists affected the extent to which each nation adopted market-oriented tax policies. He finds that, in countries where economic experts held powerful positions, neoclassical economics broke through with greater force. Drawing on revealing interviews with 80 policy elites, he examines the specific ways in which economists shaped reforms, relying on an activist approach to policymaking and the perceived utility of their science to drive change.
The Road to Unfreedom

The Road to Unfreedom

Author: Timothy Snyder
Publisher: Tim Duggan Books
ISBN: 0525574484
Pages: 368
Year: 2018-04-03
With the end of the Cold War, the victory of liberal democracy was thought to be absolute. Observers declared the end of history, confident in a peaceful, globalized future. But we now know this to be premature. Authoritarianism first returned in Russia, as Putin developed a political system dedicated solely to the consolidation and exercise of power. In the last six years, it has creeped from east to west as nationalism inflames Europe, abetted by Russian propaganda and cyberwarfare. While countries like Poland and Hungary have made hard turns towards authoritarianism, the electoral upsets of 2016 revealed the citizens of the US and UK in revolt against their countries’ longstanding policies and values. But this threat to the West also presents the opportunity to better understand the pillars of our own political order. In this forceful and unsparing work of contemporary history, Snyder goes beyond the headlines to expose the true nature of the threat to democracy. By showcasing the stark choices before us—between equality or oligarchy, individuality or totality, truth and falsehood—Snyder restores our understanding of the basis of our way of life, offering a way forward in a time of terrible uncertainty.
The Reconstruction of Nations

The Reconstruction of Nations

Author: Timothy Snyder
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 030010586X
Pages: 367
Year: 2003
"Snyder then follows transformed national ideas onto the new terrains presented by national independence after the revolutions of 1989. He reviews the threats to European security that arose in the early 1990s with the threats of breakaway minorities, provocations from Moscow, and popular fears of ethnic cleansing. Finally, he examines how a bold Polish eastern policy facilitated the peaceful end of Soviet rule in the region, prevented national disagreements from spilling into international conflict, and hastened European integration. After 1989, a Polish geopolitical vision channeled national interests toward peace."--BOOK JACKET.
Under Swiss Protection

Under Swiss Protection

Author: Agnes Hirschi, Charlotte Schallié
Publisher: Ibidem Press
ISBN: 383821109X
Pages: 200
Year: 2017
This volume retraces Carl Lutz's wartime rescue efforts in Budapest based on interviews with Holocaust survivors and Jewish eyewitness testimonies. Lutz led an extensive rescue operation that issued more than 50,000 lifesaving letters of protection. This volume shines a light on the extraordinary scope and scale of Lutz's humanitarian response.
David A&i

David A&i

Author: Simon Lee
Publisher: Phaidon Press
ISBN:
Pages: 352
Year: 1999-11-03
A study of Jacques-Louis David, chronicler of the French Revolution.
The Holocaust in American Life

The Holocaust in American Life

Author: Peter Novick
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 0547349610
Pages: 384
Year: 2000-09-20
Prize-winning historian Peter Novick illuminates the reasons Americans ignored the Holocaust for so long -- how dwelling on German crimes interfered with Cold War mobilization; how American Jews, not wanting to be thought of as victims, avoided the subject. He explores in absorbing detail the decisions that later moved the Holocaust to the center of American life: Jewish leaders invoking its memory to muster support for Israel and to come out on top in a sordid competition over what group had suffered most; politicians using it to score points with Jewish voters. With insight and sensitivity, Novick raises searching questions about these developments. Have American Jews, by making the Holocaust the emblematic Jewish experience, given Hitler a posthumous victory, tacitly endorsing his definition of Jews as despised pariahs? Does the Holocaust really teach useful lessons and sensitize us to atrocities, or, by making the Holocaust the measure, does it make lesser crimes seem "not so bad"? What are we to make of the fact that while Americans spend hundreds of millions of dollars for museums recording a European crime, there is no museum of American slavery?
The Burden of Responsibility

The Burden of Responsibility

Author: Tony Judt
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226414191
Pages: 204
Year: 2007-02-01
Using the lives of the three outstanding French intellectuals of the twentieth century, renowned historian Tony Judt offers a unique look at how intellectuals can ignore political pressures and demonstrate a heroic commitment to personal integrity and moral responsibility unfettered by the difficult political exigencies of their time. Through the prism of the lives of Leon Blum, Albert Camus, and Raymond Aron, Judt examines pivotal issues in the history of contemporary French society—antisemitism and the dilemma of Jewish identity, political and moral idealism in public life, the Marxist moment in French thought, the traumas of decolonization, the disaffection of the intelligentsia, and the insidious quarrels rending Right and Left. Judt focuses particularly on Blum's leadership of the Popular Front and his stern defiance of the Vichy governments, on Camus's part in the Resistance and Algerian War, and on Aron's cultural commentary and opposition to the facile acceptance by many French intellectuals of communism's utopian promise. Severely maligned by powerful critics and rivals, each of these exemplary figures stood fast in their principles and eventually won some measure of personal and public redemption. Judt constructs a compelling portrait of modern French intellectual life and politics. He challenges the conventional account of the role of intellectuals precisely because they mattered in France, because they could shape public opinion and influence policy. In Blum, Camus, and Aron, Judt finds three very different men who did not simply play the role, but evinced a courage and a responsibility in public life that far outshone their contemporaries. "An eloquent and instructive study of intellectual courage in the face of what the author persuasively describes as intellectual irresponsibility."—Richard Bernstein, New York Times
Stalinism and Nazism

Stalinism and Nazism

Author: Ian Kershaw
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521565219
Pages: 369
Year: 1997-04-28
Several distinguished historians present the first comprehensive comparison of Nazism and Stalinism.