Spitzensport und Studium
Author: Carmen Borggrefe, Klaus Cachay, Lars Riedl
Steffen Blaschke reconsiders the three major concepts knowledge, learning, and memory in the light of social systems theory. He complements autopoietic organization theory with a clear-cut distinction between individual and organizational knowledge, learning, and memory.
Sociology of Sport
Author: Kevin Young
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
The Sociology of Sport has grown since its inception in the late 1950s and has become robust, and diverse. Many countries now boast strong scholars in the field and this volume reflects the fascinating research being done. This innovative volume is dedicated to a review of the state of the area by region.
How can postcolonial thought be most fruitfully translated and incorporated into sociology? This special volume brings together leading sociologists to offer some answers and examples. The chapters offer new postcolonial readings of canonical thinkers like Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim and Robert Park.
This book shows that the introduction of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) of credit points as a new accounting unit at universities has led to increased bureaucracy and the schoolmaster-style regimentation of Bachelor’s and Master’s courses. It explains how, due to the pressure of having to plan every single working hour of studying in advance, a ‘Sudoku Effect’ is created by the necessity to combine courses, exams and modules in such a way that the points ‘add up’. An unintentional side effect of the introduction of the ECTS, the Sudoku Effect has led to more classroom style teaching, an inflation of exams and fewer choices available to students. It has resulted in such complex and contradictory guidelines for the planning of the curriculum that the values attributed to the higher education reform can often only be realised if the rules for Bachelor’s and Master’s programmes are ignored, or at least stretched, in practice. The book describes how the reaction to this situation is the continuous further refinement of the complicated rules rather than their abolishment.
Gender equality has been on the agenda of national policies of higher education within and outside the European Union (EU) for the last twenty years. In some European countries, this process was initiated early on and has brought about remarkable results, while in others progress has been slower. Different countries and institutions have focussed on different strategies for raising awareness about the discrimination of women and for increasing the number of women in aca- mia, particularly in leadership positions. Previous research on gender equality in higher education has produced many case studies about programmes at institutions of higher education in Europe and elsewhere. Different actors like the European Commission and - tional organisations have also furnished reports about national policies. Building on this material, it is now time to analyse under what conditions equality p- grammes are successful. For a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of and barriers to gender equality in higher education, we also need studies that focus on the development of gender equality policies in different countries, as well as on conditions of implementation, change of strategy, and the evaluation of - sults. Comparative studies would be another useful tool for understanding the development and success of gender equality programmes.
Gender planning is not an end in itself but a means by which women, through a process of empowerment, can emancipate themselves. Ultimately, its success depends on the capacity of women's organizations to confront subordination and create successful alliances which will provide constructive support in negotiating women's needs at the level of household, civil society, the state and the global system. Gender Planning and Development provides an introduction to an issue of primary importance and constant debate. It will be essential reading for academics, practitioners, undergraduates and trainees in anthropology, development studies, women's studies and social policy.
The Multinational Firm
Author: Glenn Morgan, Peer Hull Kristensen, Richard Whitley
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
In contrast to the traditional view of multinational firms as cohesive rational actors maximizing the use of resources across national boundaries, the contributors to this volume argue that they are complex social arenas where competing groups draw on resources from their own socially-embedded locations in developing new transnational social relationships. As firms seek to manage across national and institutional boundaries, they stretch their existing capacities and routines and developnew sets of transnational social relationships through different groups competing and cooperating. These processes occur at a number of levels which are explored in different empirical settings. Firstly, at the level of governance, multinational firms may develop conflicts between investors from different national contexts, e.g. between the arms-length orientation of Anglo-Saxon institutional investors and the more committed orientation of investors in certain European and Asian contexts.The tension between opening the firm up for foreign investors in order to have access to more and cheaper capital and the consequent effects on management strategy is explored in a number of chapters. Secondly, at the level of coordinating activities across different sites, multinationals may encourage competition between plants in different countries as well as seeking to transfer best practices. The result may be pressure on managers and employees in certain plants to give up traditionalpractices and employment rights. Thirdly, multinational firms operate in environments where other forms of coordinating international business activity may also occur, e.g. cartels or the creation of international regulatory activity. They therefore compete for the regulatory space in complex political environments that will enable them to prosper.
Rule Systems Theory
Author: Helena Flam, Marcus Carson
Publisher: Peter Lang
Explaining the complexity of social life remains the central challenge of the social sciences. This book offers a variety of theoretical-empirical explorations and applications inspired by an important neo-institutional approach to tackling this complexity - the rule systems theory. Its point of departure is the assumption that institutions and cultural formations possess causal powers and relative autonomy, constraining and enabling people’s social actions and interactions. Structural and cultural properties of society are carried by, transmitted, and reformed by human agents whose interactions generate, reproduce, elaborate and transform structures. The contributors are highly accomplished economists, sociologists and political scientists who come from the US and several European countries. The book is meant as a Festschrift for Tom Burns, a central figure in the development of the rule systems theory.
The changes in the US healthcare system since World War II are documented here, from new technologies, service-delivery arrangements, to financing mechanisms and underlying sets of organizing principles. The authors illustrate the work with five types of healthcare organizations.
The author argues that the existing conceptual frameworks of political and social theory restrict both theorists and empirical researchers to a narrow definition of authoritarianism that focuses on governmental structure and fails to take account of forms of social control exercised outside the governmental sphere. Rather than define authoritarianism primarily by contrast to liberal democracy, Sciulli argues, we need to broaden our conception of authoritarianism to include "social authoritarianism," referring to social control imposed by private organizations and institutions, such as business corporations and professional associations. In this book, Sciulli develops an alternative conceptual framework, which he calls the theory of societal constitutionalism, and he explains how the theory can be used to assess whether social order in a society, whether democratic or authoritarian in political rule, is characterized by some degree of social authoritarianism. The book will be important reading for theorists in sociology, political science and legal studies.
This book examines contemporary changes in labor market institutions in the United States, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands, focusing on developments in three arenas - industrial relations, vocational education and training, and labor market policy. While confirming a broad, shared liberalizing trend, it finds that there are in fact distinct varieties of liberalization associated with very different distributive outcomes. Most scholarship equates liberal capitalism with inequality and coordinated capitalism with higher levels of social solidarity. However, this study explains why the institutions of coordinated capitalism and egalitarian capitalism coincided and complemented one another in the "Golden Era" of postwar development in the 1950s and 1960s, and why they no longer do so. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, this study reveals that the successful defense of the institutions traditionally associated with coordinated capitalism has often been a recipe for increased inequality due to declining coverage and dualization. Conversely, it argues that some forms of labor market liberalization are perfectly compatible with continued high levels of social solidarity and indeed may be necessary to sustain it.