Alors que le Coran fait l'objet, dans les courants salafistes et dhjihadistes, d'une interprétation atemporelle et anhistorique, cet ouvrage passionnant a l'ambition de donner à comprendre ce que le discours coranique de Mahomet, qui était alors loin d'être fixé par écrit, a pu signifier pour ceux qui l'ont entendu, dans la société sans livre qu'était l'Arabie du début du viie siècle. L'originalité de cette approche consiste ainsi à déchiffrer le Coran à la lumière d'un contexte historique et anthropologique précis, celui de tribus vivant selon des rapports de solidarité et d'alliance pour faire face à l'environnement éprouvant du désert. Jacqueline Chabbi montre avec brio, et une connaissance approfondie de la langue coranique, que les trois caractéristiques principales du divin correspondent aux trois piliers de la société tribale : l'alliance, la guidance et le don. Pour ce groupe humain patriarcal du désert, Dieu est représenté avant tout comme celui dont l'alliance, la guidance et le don répondent aux nécessités vitales imposées par l'environnement. Outre que cet éclairage permet d'élucider un nombre considérable de notions et de distinguer celles qui sont d'origine biblique, il renouvelle totalement le sens de celles qui ont été figées par une certaine doctrine musulmane (djihâd, charia notamment). Car il ne s'agit pas, en découvrant des significations en relation avec un terrain chronologiquement premier, de figer les mots dans leur sens d'origine mais au contraire de faire apparaître combien ils ont pu évoluer au fil du temps et des transformations sociales. Jacqueline Chabbi, agrégée d'arabe et docteur ès lettres, est professeur honoraire des universités. Elle a notamment publié : Le Seigneur des tribus. L'islam de Mahomet (CNRS, 1997/2013) et Le Coran décrypté. Figures bibliques en Arabie (Fayard 2008/Le Cerf, 2004).
Islam For Dummies
Author: Malcolm Clark
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Many non-Muslims have no idea that Muslims worship the same God as Christians and Jews, and that Islam preaches compassion, charity, humility, and the brotherhood of man. And the similarities don’t end there. According to Islamic teaching, Muhammad founded Islam in 610 CE after the angel Gabriel appeared to him at Mecca and told him that God had entered him among the ranks of such great biblical prophets as Abraham, Moses, and Christ. Whether you live or work alongside Muslims and want to relate to them better, or you simply want to gain a better understanding of the world’s second largest religion, Islam For Dummies can help you make sense of this religion and its appeal. From the Qur’an to Ramadan, this friendly guide introduces you to the origins, practices and beliefs of Islam, including: Muhammad, the man and the legend The Five Pillars of Wisdom The Five Essentials beliefs of Islam The different branches of Islam and Islamic sects The Qur’an and Islamic law Islam throughout history and its impact around the world Professor Malcolm Clark explores the roots of Islam, how it has developed over the centuries, and it’s long and complex relationship with Christianity. He helps puts Islam in perspective as a major cultural and geopolitical force. And he provided helpful insights into, among other things: Muhammad, the Qur’an and the ethical teachings of Islam Muslim worship, customs, and rituals surrounding birth, marriage, and death Shi’ites, Sunnis, Sufis, Druze, and other important Muslim groups Islam in relation to Judaism and Christianity In these troubled times, it is important that we try to understand the belief systems of others, for through understanding comes peace. Islam For Dummies helps you build bridges of understanding between you and your neighbors in the global village.
Is Critique Secular?
Author: Talal Asad, Wendy Brown, Judith Butler, Saba Mahmood
Publisher: Fordham University Press
In this volume, four leading thinkers of our times confront the paradoxes and dilemmas attending the supposed stand-off between Islam and liberal democratic values. Taking the controversial Danish cartoons of Mohammad as a point of departure, Talal Asad, Wendy Brown, Judith Butler, and Saba Mahmood inquire into the evaluative frameworks at stake in understanding the conflicts between blasphemy and free speech, between religious taboos and freedoms of thought and expression, and between secular and religious world views. Is the language of the law an adequate mechanism for the adjudication of such conflicts? What other modes of discourse are available for the navigation of such differences in multicultural and multi-religious societies? What is the role of critique in such an enterprise? These are among the pressing questions this volume addresses.
Accusations of Unbelief in Islam
Author: Camilla Adang, Hassan Ansari, Maribel Fierro, Sabine Schmidtke
The present volume offers nineteen studies of takfīr: accusations of unbelief, covering different periods and parts of the Muslim world. Takfīr was and is an effective instrument to delegitimize one's opponents, who may face social exclusion or even persecution.
Beauty and Islam
Author: Valerie Gonzalez
This illustrated volume of five essays explores aspects of aesthetics in classical Islamic thought in the light of contemporary theories, offering new perspectives on Islamic art and architecture with examples ranging from the Qur'an and the Alhambra to the works of present day artists and philosophers. Tracing the roots of Islamic aesthetics back to the works of the great philosophers of the Middle Ages such as Avicenna and Averroes, Gonzalez finds that aesthetic theory in Islam must be seen within the much wider context of parallel thinking on theology, ethics, physics and metaphysics. She balances her analysis of this philosophy (moral, logical and scientific) of beauty with the equally important analysis of the perceptual experience of beauty. Her study covers the breadth and depth of the experience, understanding and formulation of beauty as it has been seen through Islamic eyes.
Reform, by definition, is not a complete break with tradition, but a determination by scholars, activists, politicians and critical thinkers to re-claim the tenets of their faith. Muslim communities have historically displayed a tendency to preserve the status quo. By contrast, the individuals and movements in Islam and the Question of Reform are determined-often at great personal risk-to push aside existing political and social elites and the historically accepted interpretations of Islam and its place in society. The perspectives examined in this volume avoid superficial or apologetic examinations of Islam's political and social role. Instead, they meticulously scrutinise the religion's public role, often questioning the validity of dogmas that have acted as tools of empowerment for existing elites for centuries. Islam and the Question of Reform is an engaging book about the evolving and dynamic discourse that surrounds the question of Islamic reform.
The collection of articles in this volume is dedicated to Ramzi Baalbaki of the American University of Beirut on the occasion of his 60th birthday. It provides an interesting glimpse into the early medieval and modern traditions related to the Arabic language, its grammar, historical development, and demonstrate its centrality to other fields of study such as qur’?nic studies, adab, folk literature, sufism, and poetry.
Peter Adamson presents the first full history of philosophy in the Islamic world for a broad readership. He traces its development from early Islam to the 20th century, ranging from Spain to South Asia, featuring Jewish and Christian thinkers as well as Muslim. Major figures like Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides are covered in great detail, but the book also looks at less familiar thinkers, including women philosophers. Attention is also given to thephilosophical relevance of Islamic theology (kalam) and mysticism--the Sufi tradition within Islam, and Kabbalah among Jews--and to science, with chapters on disciplines like optics and astronomy. The first partof the book looks at the blossoming of Islamic theology and responses to the Greek philosophical tradition in the world of Arabic learning, the second discusses philosophy in Muslim Spain (Andalusia), and a third section looks in unusual detail at later developments, touching on philosophy in the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires.
The prevailing belief among Muslims is that, because the Qur'an is the Word of God and God is eternal, it follows that His Word is also eternal. The belief is based on the postulate that the Word of God must be of the same nature as God Himself. Mahmoud Hussein refutes this by showing that it contradicts the very teachings of the Qur'an. Whereas God transcends time, His Word is inscribed within time. It is not a monologue, but a living exchange, through which God reveals to His Prophet different orders of truth, weaving together the absolute and the relative, the general and the particular, the eternal and the contingent. An international bestseller, Understanding the Qur'an today offers a new perspective on one of the world's most influential texts and adds an invaluable contribution to the debate on Islam and modernity.
A Season in Mecca
Author: Abdellah Hammoudi
In 1999, the Moroccan scholar Abdellah Hammoudi, trained in Paris and teaching in America, decided to go on the pilgrimage to Mecca. He wanted to observe the hajj as an anthropologist but also to experience it as an ordinary pilgrim, and to write about it for both Muslims and non-Muslims. Here is his intimate, intense, and detailed account of the hajj - a rare and important document by a subtle, learned, and sympathetic writer. Hammoudi describes not just the adventure, the human pressures, and the social tumult - everything from the early preparations to the last climactic scenes in the holy shrines of Medina and Mecca - but also the intricate politics and amazing complexity of the entire pilgrimage experience. He pays special heed to the effects of Saudi bureaucratic control over the hajj, to the ways that faith itself becomes a lucrative source of commerce for the Arabian kingdom, and to the Wahhabi inflections of the basic Muslim message. Here, too, is a poignant discussion of the inner voyage that pilgrimage can mean to those who embark on it: the transformed sense of daily life, of worship, and of political engagement. Hammoudi acknowledges that he was spurred to reconsider his own ideas about faith, gesture, community, and nationality in unanticipated ways. This is a remarkable work of literature about both the outer forms and the inner meanings of Islam today.
Author: Nadia Marzouki
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Islam: An American Religion demonstrates how Islam as formed in the United States has become an American religion in a double sense—first through the strategies of recognition adopted by Muslims and second through the performance of Islam as a faith. Nadia Marzouki investigates how Islam has become so contentious in American politics. Focusing on the period from 2008 to 2013, she revisits the uproar over the construction of mosques, legal disputes around the prohibition of Islamic law, and the overseas promotion of religious freedom. She argues that public controversies over Islam in the United States primarily reflect the American public's profound divisions and ambivalence toward freedom of speech and the legitimacy of liberal secular democracy.
L'Islam Et la Réforme
Author: Victor Segesvary
Publisher: University Press of America
This important study brings to light a little known but essential moment in the relations between Islam and Christianity: the history of the 1542 publication of the Quaran (Koran), in Latin, in Venice and Basel and the controversy surrounding the emergence of this work in religious reform circles. This research relates the origins of European attitudes of tolerance to the Reformation and the reformers specific interest in non traditional religious theology and secular philosophy. The Koran proved to be a major though overlooked element in this movement toward cultural heterodoxy. (TEXT IN FRENCH WITH ENGLISH SUMMARIES)
Muhammad and the Believers
Author: Fred M. Donner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Looks at the history of Islam, arguing that its origins began with the "Believers" movement that emphasized strict monotheism and righteous behavior that included both Christians and Jews in its early years.
The translation of an essay first published in Egypt in 1925, which took the contemporaries of its author by storm. At a time when the Muslim world was in great turmoil over the question of the abolition of the caliphate by Mustapha Kamal Ataturk in Turke
Author: Peter Adamson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Classical Philosophy is the first of a series of books in which Peter Adamson aims ultimately to present a complete history of philosophy, more thoroughly but also more enjoyably than ever before. In short, lively chapters, based on the popular History of Philosophy podcast, he offers an accessible, humorous, and detailed look at the emergence of philosophy with the Presocratics, the probing questions of Socrates, and the first full flowering of philosophy with the dialogues of Plato and the treatises of Aristotle. The story is told 'without any gaps', discussing not only such major figures but also less commonly discussed topics like the Hippocratic Corpus, the Platonic Academy, and the role of women in ancient philosophy. Within the thought of Plato and Aristotle, the reader will find in-depth introductions to major works, such as the Republic and the Nicomachean Ethics, which are treated in detail that is unusual in an introduction to ancient philosophy. Adamson looks at fascinating but less frequently read Platonic dialogues like the Charmides and Cratylus, and Aristotle's ideas in zoology and poetics. This full coverage allows him to tackle ancient discussions in all areas of philosophy, including epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, ethics and politics. Attention is also given to the historical and literary context of classical philosophy, with exploration of how early Greek cosmology responded to the poets Homer and Hesiod, how Socrates was presented by the comic playwright Aristophanes and the historian Xenophon, and how events in Greek history may have influenced Plato's thought. This is a new kind of history which will bring philosophy to life for all readers, including those coming to the subject for the first time.