Author: Philippe Artières, Pierre Lascoumes
Résistant à toutes les contestations, toutes les crises et tous les changements de régime politique, la prison s'est imposée comme un modèle universel de sanction sociale et d'isolement d'individus présumés dangereux. Elle est devenue un invariant des sociétés modernes, qui échappe en grande partie à l'action des gouvernants, tout en étant profondément ancré dans le politique, et qui dispose d'une inertie propre imposant partout un modèle répressif et disciplinaire. Peut-on cependant différencier les recours à cette solution punitive selon les contextes culturels et les conjonctures politiques ? Les moments de rupture politique ont-ils été sans écho sur les pratiques pénitentiaires ? Contrairement au lieu commun qui ne retient que l'inertie pénitentiaire, la prison est animée par une obsession réformatrice. N'est-elle tiraillée qu'entre moments de crise et mouvements perpétuels, recherche d'alternatives partielles et réplication des modèles éprouvés ? Les contributions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage s'attachent à l'analyse des changements observés dans des contextes politiques majeurs (chute du mur de Berlin, fin de l'apartheid, effondrement de l'URSS, etc.). La prison est aussi souvent impliquée dans des crises politiques qui donnent lieu à des modèles d'enfermement d'exception toujours renouvelés (camps de rétention, Guantànamo, etc.). La prison est, enfin, régulièrement l'occasion d'expérimentations et d'innovations. Mais jusqu'où cette institution peut-elle être transformée : est-elle vraiment un modèle indépassable ?
Mobilities and Foucault
Author: Katharina Manderscheid, Tim Schwanen, David Tyfield
Although Foucault’s work has been employed and embraced enthusiastically by some ‘mobilities’ scholars, discussion across these two traditions to date has mostly been partial and unsystematic. Yet Foucault’s work can make critical contributions, for example, to thinking about governing mobilities in contemporary societies, while conversely mobilities research opens up new perspectives on Foucault. In combination these bodies of work can illuminate issues as diverse as: the greater interdependencies between mobility systems (e.g. transport, tourism, trade, internet use); the proliferation of the undesired mobilities of viruses, of natural phenomena like fire, of (what is taken to be) criminality and other seemingly inevitable by-products of globalisation; the perceived threats to desirable forms of mobility as constituted by climate change, peak oil and energy security, and terrorism and warfare; and the increased popularity of logics of governance premised on choice, responsibilisation and the (re)coding of phenomena in economic terms under neo-liberalism. Against this background, this book brings together the first major collection of contributions from across the social sciences with a shared interest in both mobilities and Foucauldian thinking. This book was published as a special issue of Mobilities.
Author: Dominique Moran
The ’punitive turn’ has brought about new ways of thinking about geography and the state, and has highlighted spaces of incarceration as a new terrain for exploration by geographers. Carceral geography offers a geographical perspective on incarceration, and this volume accordingly tracks the ideas, practices and engagements that have shaped the development of this new and vibrant subdiscipline, and scopes out future research directions. By conveying a sense of the debates, directions, and threads within the field of carceral geography, it traces the inner workings of this dynamic field, its synergies with criminology and prison sociology, and its likely future trajectories. Synthesizing existing work in carceral geography, and exploring the future directions it might take, the book develops a notion of the ’carceral’ as spatial, emplaced, mobile, embodied and affective.
Author: Nick Gill
This book draws together the work of a new community of scholars with a growing interest in carceral geography: the geographical study of practices of imprisonment and detention. It combines work by geographers on 'mainstream' penal establishments where people are incarcerated by the prevailing legal system, with geographers' recent work on migrant detention centres, where irregular migrants and 'refused' asylum seekers are detained, ostensibly pending decisions on admittance or repatriation. Working in these contexts, the book's contributors investigate the geographical location and spatialities of institutions, the nature of spaces of incarceration and detention and experiences inside them, governmentality and prisoner agency, cultural geographies of penal spaces, and mobility in the carceral context. In dialogue with emergent and topical agendas in geography around mobility, space and agency, and in relation to international policy challenges such as the (dis)functionality of imprisonment and the search for alternatives to detention, this book presents a timely addition to emergent interdisciplinary scholarship that will prompt dialogue among those working in geography, criminology and prison sociology.
Il était une fois un État de sécurité. Cet État imaginaire rappelle quelque peu notre univers enfantin. Loin des clichés d'enfants innocents jouant sagement entre eux, riant joyeusement et s'amusant dans la bonne humeur, il s'agit d'un monde dur et cruel pour les plus faibles. C'est un univers impitoyable où ceux qui sont différents sont mis à part. L'État de sécurité se veut démocratique et respectueux des droits de l'homme. Pourtant, il se montre intransigeant en prenant des mesures toujours plus sévères afin de satisfaire une population inquiète qui réclame davantage de sécurité. Subissant quotidiennement les incivilités et harcelée sans répit par la criminalité, elle aspire à retrouver un monde pacifié et apaisé, débarrassé des assistés et des profiteurs du système, des délinquants multirécidivistes, des fous dangereux ou encore des pervers sexuels. Bref, tous ceux qui menacent la société des "bons citoyens" et des "honnêtes gens". Bien entendu, selon la formule consacrée, toute ressemblance avec des faits récents dans un État qui nous serait familier serait purement fortuite et involontaire.
Foucault on Politics, Society and War interrogates Foucault's controversial genealogy of modern biopolitics. By insisting on 'life' as the key referent of power in the modern age, Foucault argues that politics grounds society in war, specifically race war, in ways that come to threaten the very human existence it is pledged to promote. These essays situate Foucault's arguments, clarify the correlation of sovereign- and bio-power and examine the relation of bios, nomos and race in relation to modern war.
The Palgrave Handbook of Prison Ethnography provides an expansive overview of the challenges presented by qualitative, and particularly ethnographic, enquiry. The chapters reflect upon the means by which ethnographers aim to gain understanding, make sense of what they learn and the way they represent their finished work. The Handbook offers urgent insights relevant to current trends in the growth of imprisonment worldwide. In an era of mass incarceration, human-centric ethnography provides an important counter to quantitative analysis and the audit culture on which prisons are frequently judged. The Handbook is divided into four parts. Part I ('About Prison Ethnography') assesses methodological, theoretical and pragmatic issues related to the use of ethnographic and qualitative enquiry in prisons. Part II ('Through Prison Ethnography') considers the significance of ethnographic insights in terms of wider social or political concerns. Part III ('Of Prison Ethnography') analyses different aspects of the roles ethnographers take and how they negotiate their research settings. Part IV ('For Prison Ethnography') includes contributions that convincingly extend the value of prison ethnography beyond the prison itself. Bringing together contributions by some of the world's leading scholars in criminology and prison studies, this authoritative volume maps out new directions for future research. It will be an indispensable resource for practitioners, students, academics and researchers who use qualitative social research methods to further their understanding of prisons.
Author: Erving Goffman
A total institution is defined by Goffman as a place of residence and work where a large number of like-situated, individuals, cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period of time, together lead an enclosed, formally administered round of life. Prisons serve as a clear example, providing we appreciate that what is prison-like about prisons is found in institutions whose members have broken no laws. This volume deals with total institutions in general and, mental hospitals, in particular. The main focus is, on the world of the inmate, not the world of the staff. A chief concern is to develop a sociological version of the structure of the self. Each of the essays in this book were intended to focus on the same issue--the inmate's situation in an institutional context. Each chapter approaches the central issue from a different vantage point, each introduction drawing upon a different source in sociology and having little direct relation to the other chapters. This method of presenting material may be irksome, but it allows the reader to pursue the main theme of each paper analytically and comparatively past the point that would be allowable in chapters of an integrated book. If sociological concepts are to be treated with affection, each must be traced back to where it best applies, followed from there wherever it seems to lead, and pressed to disclose the rest of its family.
To Our Friends
Author: Invisible Committee, The Invisible Committee
The Invisible Committee's The Coming Insurrection was a phenomenon, celebrated in some quarters and inveighed against in others, publicized in media that ranged from campus bulletin boards to Fox News. Seven years later, The Invisible Committee follows up their premonitory manifesto with a new book, To Our Friends. From The Invisible Committee: In 2007 we published The Coming Insurrection in France. It must be acknowledged that a number of assertions by the Invisible Committee have since been confirmed, starting with the first and most essential: the sensational return of the insurrectionary phenomenon. Who would have bet a kopeck, seven years ago, on the overthrow of Ben Ali or Mubarak through street action, on the revolt of young people in Quebec, on the political awakening of Brazil, on the fires set French-style in the English or Swedish banlieues , on the creation of an insurrectionary commune in the very heart of Istanbul, on a movement of plaza occupations in the United States, or on the rebellion that spread throughout Greece in December of 2008? During the seven years that separate The Coming Insurrection from To Our Friends , the agents of the Invisible Committee have continued to fight, to organize, to transport themselves to the four corners of the world, to wherever the fires were lit, and to debate with comrades of every tendency and every country. Thus To Our Friends is written at the experiential level, in connection with that general movement. Its words issue from the turmoil and are addressed to those who still believe sufficiently in life to fight as a consequence. To Our Friends is a report on the state of the world and of the movement, a piece of writing that's essentially strategic and openly partisan. Its political ambition is immodest: to produce a shared understanding of the epoch, in spite of the extreme confusion of the present.
Author: Perry Zurn, Andrew Dilts
This book is an interdisciplinary collection of essays on Le Groupe d'information sur les prisons (The Prisons Information Group, or GIP). The GIP was a radical activist group, extant between 1970 and 1973, in which Michel Foucault was heavily involved. It aimed to facilitate the circulation of information about living conditions in French prisons and, over time, it catalyzed several revolts and instigated minor reforms. In Foucault's words, the GIP sought to identify what was 'intolerable' about the prison system and then to produce 'an active intolerance' of that same intolerable reality. To do this, the GIP 'gave prisoners the floor,' so as to hear from them about what to resist and how. The essays collected here explore the GIP's resources both for Foucault studies and for prison activism today.
Author: Lorna A. Rhodes
Publisher: Univ of California Press
The work of inner-city emergency psychiatric units might best be described as "medicine under siege." Emptying Beds is the result of the author's two-year immersion in one such unit and its work. It is an account of the strategies developed by a staff of psychiatrists, social workers, nurses, and other mental health workers to deal with the dilemmas they face every day.
Cultures of Confinement
Author: Frank Dikötter, Ian Brown
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Prisons are on the increase from the United States to China, as ever-larger proportions of humanity find themselves behind bars. While prisons now span the world, we know little about their history in global perspective. Rather than interpreting the prison's proliferation as the predictable result of globalization, Cultures of Confinement underlines the fact that the prison was never simply imposed by colonial powers or copied by elites eager to emulate the West, but was reinvented and transformed by a host of local factors, its success being dependent on its very flexibility. Complex cultural negotiations took place in encounters between different parts of the world, and rather than assigning a passive role to Latin America, Asia, and Africa, the authors of this book point out the acts of resistance or appropriation that altered the social practices associated with confinement. The prison, in short, was understood in culturally specific ways and reinvented in a variety of local contexts examined here for the first time in global perspective.
Based on the fieldwork in a central prison in Kolkata, India.
Psychiatry and Empire
Author: S. Mahone, M. Vaughan
'Psychiatry and Empire' brings together scholars in the History of Medicine and Colonialism to explore questions of race, gender and power relations in former colonial states across Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the Pacific. The volume advances our understanding of the rise of modern psychiatry as it collided with the psychology of colonial rule.